Pathogen: Bacillus anthracis
Host: (1)ungulates (2) Primates/Simians (3) humans (4) carnivores
Environment: Primarily in soil
Resevoir: None??? (Possibly: biofilms and insect guts)
Transmission/Infection is achieved through: (1) ingestion/inhalation of spores by grazer/browser (2) consumption of contaminated meat (3) infection through abrasions on skin during industrial processing of infected animal products (4) Injection of contaminated opiates (5) Unproven transmission cycles: (5.1) biting flies and blowflies (5.2) large vulture numbers at water holes (5.3) in the scat of scavenger animals   
Symptoms in animals: (1) It is a sudden death syndrome disease (2) Bloody diarrhea (3) lesions/black eschars on hide (4) absence of rigor mortis
Symptoms in people: (1) Cutaneous Infection (1.1) A group of small blisters or bumps that may itch (1.2) Swelling can occur around the sore (1.3) A painless skin sore (ulcer) with a black center that appears after the small blisters or bumps (1.4) Most often the sore will be on the face, neck, arms, or hands (2) Gastrointestinal infection: (2.1) fever & chills (2.2) swelling of neck or neck glands (2.3) Sore throat (2.4) Painful swallowing (2.5) Hoarseness (2.6) Nausea & vomiting, especially bloody vomiting (2.7) Diarrhea or bloody diarrhea (2.8)   Headache (2.9) Flushing (red face) & red eyes 
Morbidity & **Mortality in animals: (1) It is a sudden death syndrome disease and therefore difficult to calculate (2) Exposure to spores is similarly difficult to quantify
Morbidity & **Mortality in people: (1) Cutaneous Infection – Untreated: 20% fatality, Treated:<1% fatality. (2) Gastrointestinal Infection: Untreated: 25 -75% fatality, Treated: ~50% fatality (3) Inhalation infection: Untreated: > 85% fatality, Treated: ~50% fatality (4) Injectional Infection: Untreated: ~100% fatality (not known for certain due to under-reporting) Treated: >45% fatality (treament includes intravenous antibitotics and antisera.)
Laboratory Test Animals: (1) qPCR for plasmids coding for toxins (pX01 – Protective Antigen and pX02 – encapsulation) (2) Bacteriologic identification based on morphology, penicillin sensitivity and Gamma phage lysis
Laboratory Test People: (1) qPCR for plasmids coding for toxins (pX01 – Protective Antigen and pX02 – encapsulation) (2) Bacteriologic identification based on morphology, penicillin sensitivity and Gamma phage lysis (3) Serology – ELISA
Case definition-animal: Suspect case: acute death, bloody discharges from orifices, splenomegaly, dark non-clotting blood, oedema
Case definition – people: Cutaneous Anthrax: An acute illness, or post-mortem examination revealing a painless skin lesion developing over 2 to 6 days from a papular through a vesicular stage into a depressed black eschar with surrounding edema. Fever, malaise and lymphadenopathy may accompany the lesion. Inhalation Anthrax: An acute illness, or post-mortem examination revealing a prodrome resembling a viral respiratory illness, followed by hypoxia, dyspnea or acute respiratory distress with resulting cyanosis and shock. Radiological evidence of mediastinal widening or pleural effusion is common
Vaccination/Prophylaxis: Sterne 34F2 vaccine strain is the live attenuated spore strain for livestock. antibiotics can be used for prophylaxis but not in conjunction with live vaccine.
Treatment in animal: Antibiotics only used for valuable stock eg. breeding stock
Treatment in people: antibiotics
Priority in Gauteng (notifiable/controlled/emerging): controlled & notifiable
Contacts: NHLS-NICD: Dr Jenny Rossouw – +27 11 386 6400 http://www.nicd.ac.za/?page=Outbreak%20response&id=59 DAFF Directorate Animal Health – +27 12 319 7456, Skukuza Veterinary Services At Dekker – +27 13 735 5641
+27 11 386 6400

brochure-anthrax

STUDENT:  Ayesha Hassim

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