PATHOGEN & HOST:    Brucella spp.
Species                                                              Host 

B. melitensis                                                  goats and sheep

B. abortus                                                       cattle

B. canis                                                           dogs

B. suis                                                             pigs

B. ovis                                                             sheep

B. neotomae                                                  desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida)

B. pinnipedialis                                             seal

B. ceti                                                               dolphin, porpoise, whale

B. microti                                                         common vole (Microtus arvalis)

B. inopinata                                                     unknown

Brucella sp. NVSL 07-0026                        baboon

ENVIRONMENT: Brucellosis can persist in the soil in ideal ph and temperature
RESEVOIR: Goat, Sheep, Cattle, Pigs, Dogs , dessert woodrats, whales and pinnipeds.
TRANSMISSION & INFECTIVITY:   Brucella spp. can be transmitted through direct contact with the infected animal secretions, excretion and animal by products like meat and milk through the eyes, nose and broken skin.
SYMPTOMS IN ANIMALS: abortion, still birth or weak calves, retained placenta, reduced milk yield, epididymitis and infertility
SYMPTOMS IN PEOPLE: Septiceamia, Loss of appetite, Headaches, Chills, Night sweating, Weight loss, Join pain, Muscle pain, Back pain, Orchitis. An illness characterized by acute or insidious onset of fever and one or more of the following: night sweats, arthralgia, headache, fatigue, anorexia, myalgia, weight loss, arthritis/spondylitis, meningitis, or focal organ involvement (endocarditis, orchitis/epididymitis, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly).
MORBIDITY & MORTALITY IN ANIMALS: High morbidity, low mortality rate
MORBIDITY & MORTALITY IN PEOPLE: Low mortality (2%),
LABORATORY TESTS – ANIMALS: serology (Rose bengal test, ELISA, CFT. SAT), culture, PCR
LABORATORY TEST – PEOPLE: PRESUMPTIVE: SEROLOGY – Elisa IgG, IgA, IgM; Brucellacapt, SAT. DEFINITIVE: Blood culture, Bone marrow culture, Clean catch urine culture, PCR CSF culture Serology for brucellosis antige/ELISA
CASE DEFINITION ANIMAL: SUSPICIOUS: cow that aborted, retained placenta, infertility, hygromas. PROBABLE: RBT & CFT positive with no history of late vaccination with S19. DEFINITIVE: RBT & CFT positive + belonging to a herd that was culture positive
CASE DEFINITION PEOPLE:   PROBABLE: A clinically compatible illness with at least one of the following:   (1) Epidemiologically linked to a confirmed human or animal brucellosis case (2) Presumptive laboratory evidence, but without definitive laboratory evidence, of Brucella infection. CONFIRMED: A clinically compatible illness with definitive laboratory evidence of Brucella infection
VACCINATION: CATTLE S19 vaccine and RB51 vaccine. GOATS: Rev 1. No vaccine for humans
TREATMENT IN ANIMALS: No treatment – Slaughter out required by law
TREATMENT IN PEOPLE: Rifampin and Doxycycline
DISEASE PRIORITY IN GAUTENG: notifiable medical condition and controlled animal disease
STUDENTS: Francis Kolo & Krpasha Govindasamy

veterinary-faculty

 

 

 

 

AWARENESS RESOURCES:

SOURCES: (1)  BRUCELLOSIS WORKING GROUP SA (2) ONE HEALTH TEAM -ZD 2016

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