PATHOGEN: Leptospira spp
HOST: Rodents, mice, cattle, Horses, pigs, dogs, cats, and wild life.
ENVIRONMENT: Water bodies and soil
RESEVOIR: Rodents, especially rats.
TRANSMISSION & INFECTIVITY: Contact with infected animal urine or fluids, aborted foetuses, uterine discharge, artificial insemination, contaminated food and human -to-human contact = rare.
SYMPTOMS IN ANIMALS: IP 4-20days. High Fever, anemia, red urine, jaundice and sometimes death in 3-5 days. Abortion, diarrheoa, vomiting, fever, stiffness/arthralgia, renomegaly, icterus, oculonasal discharge, etc.
SYMPTOMS IN PEOPLE: Symptoms at earlier stages are similar to malaria, viral hepatitis, influenza, dengue fever, typhoid fever, such as: fever, conjuctivitis, headache, red eye, sore throat, flu, sneezing; while the advance stage can Lead to kidney damage, meningitis, liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death.
MORBIDITY & MORTALITY IN ANIMALS: morbidity varies from species to species but ranges from 3-62.1 % while mortality = 0-35%
MORBIDITY & MORTALITY IN PEOPLE: morbidity ranges between 7.8 -18.9 %, while mortality = 5-70% global
LABORATORY TEST – ANIMALS: Culture/isolation, Serological: Microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Detect the organism: (1) Dark-field microscopy (2) Culture (3) FAT of foetal tissue samples (4) PCR . Differential Diagnosis: Porcineparvovirus, Nephritis
LABORATORY TEST – PEOPLE: Culture/isolation, Serology (MAT), cPCR and qPCR
CASE DEFINITION PEOPLE: PROBABLE: A clinically compatible case with at least one of the following: (1) Involvement in an exposure event (e.g., adventure race, triathlon, flooding) with known associated cases, or (2) Presumptive laboratory findings, but without confirmatory laboratory evidence of Leptospira infection. CONFIRMED: A case with confirmatory laboratory results, as listed above.
VACCINATION / PROPHYLAXIS: Vaccines are available for animals while for humans no vaccines in South Africa, but availble for humans in France and cuba-commercial
TREATMENT IN ANIMALS: Antibiotics-consult a Veterinarian.
TREATMENT IN PEOPLE: Antibiotics (Doxycycline)-consult a Doctor
STUDENT: Banenat B. Dogonyaro & Aqil Jeenah